In the most popular anonymous Tor network, information is encrypted only at the first and last stage, an arbitrary chain of “scales” is created from the servers through which data is transmitted. This is the so-called onion routing. The onion even flaunts on the logo of the Tor browser, and the site addresses here end in.onion (“onion” in English). In this case, the resource name can be a random set of letters, for example, ftfkhbsr.onion.
Even more technologically advanced is the “garlic” routing that I2P uses.
In this case, a single message contains a lot of “teeth” — fully formed messages next to instructions for their delivery. But the more bells and whistles in terms of protection, the slower everything works, and Tor turned out to be the compromise option that satisfied many.
“About 12 years ago, in the Russian—speaking segment of the Internet, everything was in open access, the maximum needed was an “invite” (invitation) to the forum, but gradually law enforcement officers began to get to these resources,” says Alexander Vurasko. — Arms and drug dealers began to move to foreign sites.”
This created a lot of problems, because they simply did not come to the attention of the police and special services of those countries, and for hosting providers, sites in Russian were as incomprehensible as sites with hieroglyphs. And yet Russian law enforcement officers have found how to deal with it.
“We have activated the mechanisms of international exchange by actively using Interpol channels,” the expert continues. — Naturally, it began to take more time, but we found an approach.”